Strictly speaking, there are only two men on earth who were endowed with full and unimpaired responsibility, and these were the first and last Adam. The responsibility of each of Adam's descendants, how to be rational, it was real, and enough to make them responsible before their Creator. That, But, it is limited by degree, limited because it is affected by the effects of the Fall.
The responsibility of each descendant of Adam, not only is it enough to make it personally responsible as a creature (namely that it should do what is right e should not doing what is wrong), but originally, each of us was also gifted, legally, of full and not prejudiced responsibility, not in ourselves, but in Adam. E’ It is always necessary to remind ourselves that Adam was not alone physically the father of the human race, but that too legally he was leader of the human race.
When Adam was placed in Eden, he stood there like our representative, so much so that what he did was also taken into account by each of us, those for whom he acted. It goes beyond the limits of our intentions in this essay, enter into a detailed description of whether Adam was our federal representative and head. It would be very important to present this truth in detail, of which there is great need today, but we hope to be able to deal with this topic soon in another book. Suffice it now, But, direct the reader to Romans 5:12-19, where this truth is treated by the Holy Spirit. At the very heart of this very important text, we are told that Adam was “figure of him who was to come” (14)., that is to say of Christ. What do you mean, then, Adam was “the figure” of Christ? The answer has to be: in the fact that he was a Federal Head, who acted in the name and on behalf of the human race. He was the one who, not just legally, but in a vital sense, it had affected everyone connected to him. E’ for this reason that the Lord Jesus, in 1 Corinthians 15:45, is named “the last one Adamo“, ie the Head of a new creation, in the same way that the first Adam was the head of the old creation.
In Adam, then, each of us was already there. Adam had acted as a representative of the human race. Come, therefore, Adam was created with full and unimpaired responsibility, not prejudiced because there was no bad nature in him, and since we all were “in Adam”, it necessarily follows that all of us, originally, we were also endowed with full and unimpaired responsibility. In Eden, then, Adam's responsibility as a single person was not simply tested, but human responsibility as such, the responsibility of the entire race, as a whole.
Webster defines accountability first as “liable to be accountable”, then how “able to fulfill an obligation”. The meaning and extension of the term “responsibility”, perhaps, it could be expressed and summed up in one word: “passability to duty”. Towards God, responsibility refers to what the creature is he must to its Creator, and that the creature has the moral obligation to render.
In light of the definition just given, it quickly becomes clear that responsibility is something it should be put to the test. E’ A fact, this, that we learn from the Holy Scriptures themselves, exactly what appears to have been there in Eden. Adam had been tested. It had to be verified whether he had honored his obligations to God, his loyalty to God. He tests, proof, it consisted in obedience to the commands of his Creator. Eating of a certain tree was forbidden. E’ right at this point, But, that a difficulty presents itself to us. From God's point of view
the result of Adam's trial was not subject to probability: the result was certain. Before having formed it from the dust of the earth and before having breathed life into it, God knew exactly what the outcome of this test would be. Every Christian must agree with this statement: to deny, indeed, foreknowledge of God means denying His omniscience, and this would be denying one of the fundamental attributes of God.
We have to, But, go even further than that: non only God had perfect knowledge of the result of Adam's test, not only did His omniscient eye already see Adam eating the fruit of the forbidden tree, but He also had decreed that so it should have been. This fact is evident not only from the assumption that there is nothing that happens other than God, Creator and Ruler of the universe, has not eternally decreed it must happen, but from the express declarations of Scripture regarding Christ as Lamb sacrificial of God: “Already designated before the creation of the world” (1 Pi. 1:20). I know, then, God foreordained, even before the creation of the world that Christ should, in its time, be offered as a Sacrifice for sin, then it is indisputably evident that God also foreordained sin to enter the world, and if so, as it is, that Adam should transgress and fail. In full harmony with all this, God himself he placed the tree of knowledge of good and evil in Eden, and yet he allowed the Serpent to enter the scene and deceive Eve. Here it is, then, the difficulty: if God had eternally decreed that Adam ate from that tree, how can you hold him accountable and say that he might not have eaten?
The problem appears really complex in the extreme, but yet a solution exists, a solution, Furthermore, that it is within the reach of the finite mind. The solution lies in the distinction between secret will of God and the His will revealed. Human responsibility is measured by our knowledge of His will revealed, what God in fact he told us, not from what he didn't tell us: this defines our duty. So it was with Adam. That God had decreed that sin enter the world through the disobedience of our forefathers, was a secret hidden in His heart., Of this, Adam knew nothing, and this makes all the difference regarding your responsibility. What he had to care about was only the will revealed of God, e that was very clear. It gave had forbidden him to eat the fruit of that tree, and that was enough. It gave, But, it goes further. God warns Adam of the dire consequences he would have suffered if he disobeyed – death would be worth it.
The transgression, then, from Adam, it was quite inexcusable. Created with no evil nature in it, in perfect balance, place in the best of environments, having received dominion over all the lower creation, with all the freedom he wanted, except one prohibition, clearly warned about what the consequences of an act of insubordination to God would be, he could very well have preserved his innocence. If he fell, nevertheless, according to every principle of justice, the responsability, the blood, it would only fall on his head, and his guilt would be imputed to all those in whose name he acted. If God had revealed His purposes to Adam that sin would enter the world, and that He had already decreed that he eat ilo forbidden fruit, it is obvious that Adam could not have been held responsible for eating it. It gave, But, he does not make known his advice to Adam, and therefore, He does not interfere with his responsibility.
Yet, if God had created Adam with a propensity for evil, then human responsibility would have been prejudiced and Adam would have been put to the test only for pretense. as the, But, Adam was included among what God, at the end of the sixth day, he had declared to be “very good”, and in what, as a man, he had been done “straight” (Ec. 7:29), then “every mouth must be silenced”, e “Worldwide” he must find himself guilty towards God (Ro. 3:19).
Once again, here we must remember well how it is not that God decrees that Adam must sin and then inject into him an inclination to evil, so that this can happen, no: “Nobody, when it is tempted, tip: "I am tempted by God"; because God cannot be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one” (Gm. 1:13). Unlike, when the Serpent comes to tempt Eve, God makes them remember the command that they were forbidden to eat from the fruit of the tree of good and evil, as well as the criminal consequences they would have incurred if they had done so! God, so, while having decreed the fall, in no sense can He be considered there’Author of Adam's sin, just as in no point is Adam's responsibility prejudiced. We can thus admire the “multiple wisdom of God” in arranging a way for His eternal decree to be fulfilled, keeping intact the responsibility of His creatures.
E’ necessary, perhaps, add a few words about God's will as a decree, particularly in relation to evil. In the first place, we must affirm without any shadow of doubt, that everything that God does or allows, it's right, righteous and good simply because God does or permits it. When Luther answered the question: “Because God allows Adam to fall and corrupt his entire posterity, while it could very well have prevented him from falling?”, he says: “God is a Being whose will recognizes no cause, nor is it up to us to prescribe rules according to which He should act, nor call him to account for what he does. He has neither superiors nor peers, and it is His will that is the rule of everything. He does not do this or that for it to be right to do so, so much so that He is forced to do so. What He does is right and right simply because He does and wills it so. The will of man, undoubtedly, it can be influenced and moved, but not God's will. To assert the opposite would be to strip him of His divinity “(Of Service Arbitration, c. 153).
Affirm that God has decreed the entry of sin into His universe, and that He has predetermined all its fruits and activities, it means to say what, at first glance, might surprise the reader. However, if you reflect well above, it is far more surprising to insist that sin has invaded His domains against his will, and that its exercise is outside your jurisdiction. Then, where His omnipotence would end? No, recognize that God has predetermined all the activities of evil, it means seeing it as Governor (and not a victim) of sin: it is your will that determines its exercise, His power to limit you (Sl. 76:10).
God is neither the inspirer nor the one who instills sin in any of His creatures, but He is his lord. By this we mean that management, from God, of the wicked is so whole that they can do nothing but what His hand and advice, from eternity, determined it must be done.
Although it is not possible for God to ever emanate anything contrary to His holiness and justice, nevertheless He has ordained, for His righteous purposes, that His creatures fall into sin. If sin was never allowed, how God's righteousness would manifest itself in punishing him? How God's wisdom could have manifested itself to completely defeat her? How could God's grace have been exercised in forgiving him? How God's power could have been exercised in subduing him? Impressive proof that the Christ recognize the divine decree regarding sin, it's how He behaves with Judas. The Savior knew very well that Judas would betray him, yet we never read that he made any complaints. Unlike, He tells him: “What you need to do, failure presto” (Teacher. 13:27).
Notice how He says this after that he had received the morsel and that Satan had taken possession of his heart. Judas was already prepared and determined to betray the Master and therefore Christ, with permissive act, bowing to the will of the Father, you urge him to go and fulfill that horrible gesture.
E’ so that God it is not the Author of sin, and although sin is contrary to His saint nature, yet his existence and works are not contrary to His will, but subservient to it. God never tempts a man to sin, but has, according to His eternal counsel (which he now performs) determined its course.
Furthermore, as we have shown in chap. 8, although that God has decreed the sin of man, man is solely responsible for committing it, nor can God be reproached for this. E’ amazing how these two sides of the question are brought together by an affirmation of Christ himself: “Woe to the world because of the scandals! Because scandals need to happen; but woe to the man for whom the scandal occurs!” (Mt. 18:7).
In this way, although everything that happened at Calvary had happened: “For the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God” (At. 2:23), nevertheless, “evil hands” crucified the Lord of glory, e, Consequently, rightly His blood fell upon them and their children. These are truly great mysteries, yet it is our happy privilege and precise duty, humbly receive all that God is pleased to reveal about them in His Word of truth.